There are two types of cloning. One involves harvesting stem cells from embryos (“therapeutic cloning”). These are the biological equivalent of a template. They can develop into any kind of mature functional cell and thus help cure many degenerative and auto-immune diseases.
The other kind of cloning is much derided in popular culture – and elsewhere – as the harbinger of a Brave, New World. A nucleus from any cell of a donor is embedded in clones for sale
an egg whose own nucleus has been removed. The egg is then implanted in a woman’s womb and a cloned baby is born nine months later. Biologically, the cloned infant is a replica of the donor.
Cloning is often confused with other advances in bio-medicine and bio-engineering – such as genetic selection. It cannot – in itself – be used to produce “perfect humans” or select sex or other traits. Hence, some of the arguments against cloning are either specious or fuelled by ignorance.
It is true, though, that cloning, used in conjunction with other bio-technologies, raises serious bio-ethical questions. Scare scenarios of humans cultivated in sinister labs as sources of spare body parts, “designer babies”, “master races”, or “genetic sex slaves” – formerly the preserve of B sci-fi movies – have invaded mainstream discourse.
Still, cloning touches upon Mankind’s most basic fears and hopes. It invokes the most intractable ethical and moral dilemmas. As an inevitable result, the debate is often more passionate than informed.
I. Right to Life Arguments
According to cloning’s detractors, the nucleus removed from the egg could otherwise have developed into a human being. Thus, removing the nucleus amounts to murder.
It is a fundamental principle of most moral theories that all human beings have a right to life. The existence of a right implies obligations or duties of third parties towards the right-holder. One has a right AGAINST other people. The fact that one possesses a certain right – prescribes to others certain obligatory behaviours and proscribes certain acts or omissions. This Janus-like nature of rights and duties as two sides of the same ethical coin – creates great confusion. People often and easily confuse rights and their attendant duties or obligations with the morally decent, or even with the morally permissible. What one MUST do as a result of another’s right – should never be confused with one SHOULD or OUGHT to do morally (in the absence of a right).
The right to life has eight distinct strains:
IA. The right to be brought to life
IB. The right to be born
IC. The right to have one’s life maintained
ID. The right not to be killed
IE. The right to have one’s life saved
IF. The right to save one’s life (erroneously limited to the right to self-defence)
IG. The right to terminate one’s life
IH. The right to have one’s life terminated
IA. The Right to be Brought to Life
Only living people have rights. There is a debate whether an egg is a living person – but there can be no doubt that it exists. Its rights – whatever they are – derive from the fact that it exists and that it has the potential to develop life. The right to be brought to life (the right to become or to be) pertains to a yet non-alive entity and, therefore, is null and void. Had this right existed, it would have implied an obligation or duty to give life to the unborn and the not yet conceived. No such duty or obligation exist.
IB. The Right to be Born
The right to be born crystallizes at the moment of voluntary and intentional fertilization. If a scientist knowingly and intentionally causes in vitro fertilization for the explicit and express purpose of creating an embryo – then the resulting fertilized egg has a right to mature and be born. Furthermore, the born child has all the rights a child has against his parents: food, shelter, emotional nourishment, education, and so on.
It is debatable whether such rights of the fetus and, later, of the child, exist if there was no positive act of fertilization – but, on the contrary, an act which prevents possible fertilization, such as the removal of the nucleus (see IC below).
IC. The Right to Have One’s Life Maintained
Does one have the right to maintain one’s life and prolong them at other people’s expense? Does one have the right to use other people’s bodies, their property, their time, their resources and to deprive them of pleasure, comfort, material possessions, income, or any other thing?
The answer is yes and no.
No one has a right to sustain his or her life, maintain, or prolong them at another INDIVIDUAL’s expense (no matter how minimal and insignificant the sacrifice required is). Still, if a contract has been signed – implicitly or explicitly – between the parties, then such a right may crystallize in the contract and create corresponding duties and obligations, moral, as well as legal.
No fetus has a right to sustain its life, maintain, or prolong them at his mother’s expense (no matter how minimal and insignificant the sacrifice required of her is). Still, if she signed a contract with the fetus – by knowingly and willingly and intentionally conceiving it – such a right has crystallized and has created corresponding duties and obligations of the mother towards her fetus.
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